Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

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Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

In an emergency, sudden cardiac arrest occurs when the heart stops beating. Your heart will cease pumping blood if there is an electrical problem. Your cells can’t get the oxygen they require as a result. In just a few minutes, abrupt cardiac arrest can become fatal due to the shortage of oxygen in your cells. Immediate assistance from the best cardiologist in Hyderabad increases the chances of survival.

Your heart stops beating unexpectedly, a potentially fatal disease known as sudden cardiac arrest. Blood is not being pumped by your heart anymore. Your organs and entire body are in danger of dying in minutes. They require oxygen all the time. That oxygen is delivered via your blood.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation are two emergency medical procedures. Until an electric shock restores a normal cardiac rhythm, CPR keeps adequate oxygen in your lungs and gets it to your brain. Defibrillators and CPR could save your life.

What is Sudden Cardiac Death?

Unexpected, sudden death is known as sudden cardiac death (SCD). It is brought on by a lack of heart function (sudden cardiac arrest). Those who experience sudden cardiac death most frequently are adults in their mid-30s to mid-40s. It affects men and those born as males (AMAB) twice as often as it does women and those born as females (AFAB). Only 1 to 2 children per 100,000 are affected by this illness each year, making it rare among youngsters.

Symptoms of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Symptoms of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Receiving care before your heart stops beating could save your life. Early symptoms of cardiac arrest are frequently warning indicators. The sudden and drastic sudden cardiac arrest symptoms are:

  • Sudden collapse
  • No pulse
  • No breathing
  • Loss of consciousness

Before the sudden cardiac arrest, various indications and symptoms can appear. These could consist of:

  • Weakness
  • Chest discomfort
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fast-beating, fluttering, or pounding heart (palpitations)

Before fainting, some people experience a rapid heartbeat, dizziness, or drowsiness. Additionally, some people experience chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, or vomiting one hour before a sudden cardiac arrest.

Causes of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Your heart’s electrical system controls your heartbeat’s rhythm and frequency. An SCA may happen when the heart’s electrical system is damaged, and irregular heartbeats develop. Unusual heartbeats are known as arrhythmias, and there are numerous types. They could make the heart beat abnormally, too quickly, or too slowly. Some of these can prevent the heart from pumping blood to the body; these bring on SCA.

Anyone, including those with no history of heart illness, is susceptible to sudden cardiac arrest. A person with a previous, possibly undiagnosed heart ailment often experiences a life-threatening arrhythmia. Conditions consist of:

Coronary Heart Disease

Individuals with coronary artery disease, in which the arteries narrow due to deposits of cholesterol and other substances, are most likely to experience sudden cardiac arrest.

Enlarged Heart (Cardiomyopathy)

This mainly happens when the muscle walls of your heart expand, grow, or thicken. If so, your heart’s muscle is defective, which frequently results in arrhythmias.

Congenital (Since Birth) Heart Conditions

Some people have cardiac defects from birth. This is referred to as a congenital heart condition. Children born with a significant heart condition are susceptible to sudden cardiac arrest.

Ventricular Fibrillation

an arrhythmia in which the heart’s ventricles, or lower chambers, do not typically beat. Instead, they beat incredibly quickly and erratically. Blood can’t be pumped into the body by them. This causes most SCAs.

Electrical Problems in the Heart

Alternatively to a heart muscle or valve issue, in some patients, the problem is with the heart’s electrical circuitry. These are referred to as primary cardiac rhythm anomalies and include diseases like long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome.

Risk Factors

The risk of sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death can increase due to various circumstances. The two main sudden cardiac arrest risk factors are as follows:

Previous Heart Attack: The first six months following a heart attack are the most dangerous for you in sudden cardiac death. Medical professionals attribute a prior heart attack to 75% of sudden cardiac fatalities.

Coronary Artery Disease: Smoking, a family history of cardiovascular disease, excessive cholesterol, or an enlarged heart are some risk factors for coronary artery disease. Eighty percent of sudden cardiac deaths are related to coronary artery disease.

Other factors include:

  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Being male
  • An inactive lifestyle
  • High blood pressure
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • A family history of coronary artery disease
  • As we age, our risk of sudden cardiac arrest rises
  • Using illicit substances like cocaine or amphetamines
  • Unbalanced nutrition, such as insufficient amounts of potassium or magnesium



SCA occurs suddenly and calls for immediate medical attention. Medical tests are rarely used to detect SCA while it is happening. Instead, it is typically only discovered after it occurs. Healthcare providers do this by ruling out alternative reasons for a person’s unexpected collapse.

Your healthcare provider could suggest you see the best cardiologist in Hyderabad or a physician who focuses on heart problems if you have a high risk of developing SCA. The cardiologist may advise you to undergo many heart health exams to determine how well your heart is functioning. They will consult with you to decide whether you require medical attention to avoid SCA. After you have had a cardiac episode, additional tests may be performed, including:

Blood tests can be performed to check for heart attack warning symptoms. Magnesium and potassium levels can also be assessed.

A chest X-ray can look for other heart disease symptoms.

Treatment for Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Treatment for Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Part of emergency cardiac arrest treatment is restarting your heart and reestablishing a regular rhythm. Appropriate care includes:

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): Immediate CPR is one of the most crucial interventions to increase cardiac arrest survival. Until an automatic or external defibrillator is available, CPR is commonly used. Chest compressions during CPR take the role of the heart’s pumping function. Small amounts of blood are transferred from your heart to your brain.

Automatic Defibrillator or External Defibrillator: Once connected, this gadget delivers a brief electrical current (shock) to your chest. The current flows to your heart. This stops the aberrant impulses and restores the normal impulses that cause them to beat. It may take more than one jolt for your heart to begin pumping normally again.

If you survive a cardiac arrest, your doctor may prescribe one or more drugs to reduce your chances of experiencing another.

  • Medication can help decrease blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
  • Damaged blood arteries or heart valves can be repaired surgically. It can also bypass or eliminate artery obstructions.
  • Exercise can help you enhance your cardiovascular fitness.
  • Changes in diet can help you lower your cholesterol.

The Final Word

Cardiac arrest is potentially lethal. For the question “how to prevent sudden cardiac arrest? “Receiving therapy as soon as possible improves your chances of survival. Treatment is most effective when administered within a few minutes of the arrest. It’s critical to understand the reason for cardiac arrest if you’ve had one. The cause of your cardiac arrest will determine your long-term prognosis. The doctor can discuss treatment choices with you to safeguard your heart and prevent cardiac arrest from occurring again.

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