Prediabetes is a medical condition in which you have a higher than normal blood sugar level. It’s not high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes yet. However, without lifestyle changes, adults and children with prediabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
If you have prediabetes, the long-term damage of diabetes especially to your heart, blood vessels and kidneys may already be starting. Progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes isn’t inevitable.
Consuming healthy foods, making physical activity part of your daily routine and staying at a healthy weight can help bring your blood sugar level back to normal.
Pre Diabetic Symptoms
Prediabetes doesn’t usually have any signs or symptoms. One possible sign of prediabetes is darkened skin on certain parts of the body. Affected areas can include the neck, armpits, elbows, knees and knuckles.
The signs and symptoms that suggest you have moved from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes include:-
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urination
- Excess hunger
- Blurred vision
Causes Of Prediabetes
The pancreas releases a hormone called insulin when you eat so that sugar from the blood moves into the cells of your body and serves as an energy source. That’s how insulin helps lower your blood sugar level.
The causes of prediabetes are similar to those of diabetes, though they are at an earlier stage. They primarily consist of:-
Insulin resistance, which occurs when cells do not respond properly to insulin.
Increased metabolic disturbance as a result of both worsening hyperglycemia and insulin resistance.
A normal blood glucose level is less than 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).If you have prediabetes, your blood glucose levels will rise to 100 mg/dL to 125 mg/dL. Once your blood glucose level goes above 125, you will be diagnosed with diabetes.
Pre diabetic Risk factors
Prediabetes can occur in anyone, but certain factors can increase your chances of developing the condition. According to the Endocrinologist in Hyderabad, prediabetes is strongly linked to lifestyle factors and genetics.
Here are some of the main risk factors for prediabetes:-
- Age – People over 45 years old are at a higher risk of prediabetes.
- Body weight– If you have a body mass index (BMI) over 25, your doctor may want to screen you for prediabetes.
- Waist size– Having more fat around the waist than the hips can increase your risk of prediabetes. You can measure this risk factor by checking if your waist is 40 or more inches if you are male and 35 inches or more if you are female.
- Race and ethnicity – Research has shown that prediabetes occurs at higher rates in people who are African American, Asian American, Hispanic, or Native American. Health disparities, such as access to care, may likely factor into this higher prevalence, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
- Diet – Regular consumption of red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages could increase your risk of developing prediabetes.
- Physical inactivity – Not only can getting regular exercise help you maintain a moderate weight, but it can also reduce the risk of prediabetes.
- Family history– If you have an immediate relative with type 2 diabetes, you may be at a higher risk of developing prediabetes.
- Tobacco use – In addition to increasing the risk of insulin resistance, smoking may also be associated with an increase in waist size, which is another risk factor of prediabetes.
- Medical history – Certain conditions, including sleep apnea, gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, and increased cholesterol or triglyceride levels may be linked to a higher risk of insulin resistance and prediabetes.
Pre Diabetic Diagnosis
Your doctor from the Endocrinology Hospital in Hyderabad will need to order a blood test for an accurate diagnosis. This means drawing a blood sample to send to a lab. Results can vary depending on the type of test. You should take the same test twice to confirm the diagnosis, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Devices that measure glucose levels, such as the finger-stick test, aren’t used for diagnosis. Instead, your doctor will use one or two of these tests:
1. Hemoglobin A1C Test
The hemoglobin A1C test, which is also called the A1C test or glycosylated hemoglobin test, measures your average blood sugar level over the last 2 to 3 months. This test doesn’t require fasting and can be done any time.
An A1C value of 5.7 to 6.4 percent is diagnostic for prediabetes. A second A1C test is recommended to confirm the results. The higher the A1C, the higher the risk that your prediabetes will progress to type 2 diabetes.
2. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test
During an FPG test, your doctor of the best diabetes hospitals in Hyderabad will ask you to fast for 8 hours or overnight. Before you eat, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample for testing. A blood sugar level of 100–125 mg/dL indicates prediabetes.
3. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
An OGTT also requires fasting. Your doctor will check your blood glucose levels twice, once at the beginning of the appointment and then 2 hours later after you drink a sugary drink. If the blood sugar level reads 140–199 mg/dL after 2 hours, then the test indicates IGT, or prediabetes.
Treatment For Pre Diabetic Condition
You must follow these steps to treat Pre diabetic condition
- Eat a healthy diet and lose weight. Losing 5% to 10% of your weight can make a huge difference.
- Exercise. Pick something you enjoy, like walking. Try to get at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week. You can start with less time and work your way up to a half-hour if you need to. Check with your doctor before you do more than that.
- Get your blood pressure and cholesterol under control.
- Take medication like metformin to lower your blood sugar if you are at high risk of diabetes.
Pre Diabetic Diet Chart
There’s no official diet, but some food changes can reverse prediabetes and lower your chances of getting type 2 diabetes:-
- Choose whole grains and whole-grain products over processed carbs like white bread, potatoes, and breakfast cereals.
- Drink coffee, water, and tea instead of sugary drinks.
- Choose good fats like those in vegetable oil, nuts, and seeds over those in margarine, baked goods, and fried foods.
- Trade red meat and processed meats for nuts, whole grains, poultry, and fish.
When To See A Doctor?
If you suspect you or your child may have diabetes. If you notice any possible diabetes symptoms, contact your doctor. The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the sooner treatment can begin.
If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes. After you receive your diagnosis, you will need close medical follow-up until your blood sugar levels stabilize.