Polycystic Ovarian Disorder (PCOD) is a hormonal condition in women during which the ovaries produce large numbers of immature eggs, ultimately forming cysts in the ovaries. It leads to various abnormalities, including the absence of ovulation and irregular menstrual periods.
If you are experiencing severe menstrual pains or any symptoms of PCOD, then a visit to the best gynecology hospitals in kukatpally ensures early diagnosis and treatment.
PCOD and PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome), if left untreated, can lead to further health complications like diabetes, obesity, heart diseases, and high cholesterol. It might also result in difficulties while conceiving, weight gain, acne, and hirsutism.
Causes of PCOD and PCOS
The causes of PCOD and PCOS are unknown, but studies state that Insulin, Inflammation, and Genes are linked to the causes of PCOD. Some of the prevalent factors for these diseases are:
There is a high possibility of getting PCOD if direct female relatives are diagnosed with PCOD.
2. Excess Insulin & Lifestyle
The pancreas produces insulin, and this hormone helps the body use sugar from consumed foods and produce energy. Several women with PCOD have peripheral insulin resistance.
As a result of insulin resistance, the cells can’t use insulin properly, increasing the body’s demand for insulin. This high insulin demand results in the ovaries producing more male hormones, leading to difficulty in ovulation.
PCOD or PCOS can lead to increased levels of inflammation in women. Obesity can also cause inflammation. Studies have shown that excess inflammation is linked to higher androgen levels.
Symptoms of PCOD and PCOS
The symptoms of PCOD and PCOS in females usually develop during the first cycle of menstruation at puberty. These symptoms can also develop due to increased weight over the years.
Here are some common symptoms of PCOD and PCOS disorders:
- Enhanced Androgen Levels – Excess male sex hormones can lead to excessive facial and body hair growth.
- Irregular menstruation – Irregular periods or delayed menstrual cycles due to the abnormality in the maturation of the egg.
- Amenorrhea – Skipped or absence of menstruation.
- Hair Loss – Excessive thinning of hair happens due to increased male hormones.
- Acne and Weight gain – These are common inflammatory PCOS symptoms.
- Menorrhagia – Heavy bleeding during menstrual periods.
- Skin Darkening – Darkening of areas including Groin, Neck, and Under the Breasts.
Differences between PCOD and PCOS
Here are a few basic differences between PCOD and PCOS:
- PCOD is a condition developed by an imbalance of hormones.
- Does not affect fertility.
- Fewer number cysts on the ovaries
- It can be treated and reversed.
- Key signs – Weight gain and irregular menstrual cycle.
- PCOS is a disorder of the Endocrine system.
- It can lead to infertility.
- More than ten cysts on the ovaries
- It isn’t easy to reverse PCOS.
- Key signs – Hair loss and pain in the Pelvic region.
As per reports, PCOD is more prevalent than PCOS. Around 1/3rd of women worldwide are suffering from PCOD. PCOS disorder makes conception slightly complex due to hormonal dysfunction, but in about 80% of PCOD cases, women can get pregnant with little medical assistance.
How is PCOD Diagnosed?
If you are diagnosed with PCOD, you must go for regular checkups to analyze and confirm PCOD, and your doctor will discuss your medical history and perform a physical examination.
Doctors may recommend a pelvic exam and blood tests to quantify hormone levels and also an ultrasound to check for the appearance of your ovaries and the uterus.
How is PCOS Diagnosed?
Doctors typically suspect PCOS in women with symptoms like high androgen levels, irregular menstrual cycles, and cysts in the ovaries. They also ask about symptoms like acne, face and body hair growth, etc.
Doctors perform a pelvic examination to look for problems with your ovaries and other reproductive tract organs. A blood PCOS test is also advised to check cholesterol, insulin, and triglyceride levels. This will help evaluate your risk for related conditions like heart disease and diabetes.
Treatment for PCOD and PCOS
The treatment depends on the symptoms and the individual. The doctors usually prefer medications, but they advise going under surgery with increased severity to get optimal results.
Daily Progestin can restore average hormone balance, regulate ovulation and relieve symptoms like excess hair growth. Progestin also helps regulate the menstrual cycle and treat PCOS symptoms like hair loss and acne. To treat PCOS and PCOD, birth control pills and other medications can be used.
Surgical operations can be an option to improve fertility if other treatments don’t work. For example, Ovarian Drilling is a procedure that makes tiny holes in the ovary with a laser or thin heated needle to restore regular ovulation.
The most effective cure for PCOD is yet to be determined. However, with suitable treatment and lifestyle modifications, you can manage the conditions to some extent. The doctors will follow a multidisciplinary treatment approach for PCOD.
One of the best ways to fare and keep your symptoms in check is Proper Weight Management. So, women who have PCOS must work out regularly and maintain a healthy lifestyle by consuming only a PCOS diet.
There is a list of lifestyle recommendations suggested for women suffering from PCOD. But, you must primarily follow a PCOD diet with low fat and carbs. This would be very beneficial in preventing any sudden upsurge in your blood sugar levels. Unprocessed foods, food with high fiber, broccoli, cauliflower, nuts, legumes, fish, whole grain, and low-fat dairy are the way to keep the body weight in check.
Other than the above, your doctor would recommend various medications to cure your menstrual cycle. The doctor may also recommend Immature Follicle Aspiration PCOS treatment. This treatment helps to improve your endocrinology to reduce the number of follicles in the ovary, which facilitates pregnancy.
What Types of Exercises Are Best for PCOD and PCOS?
High-Intensity interval training (HIIT) and Cardiovascular workouts are among the best types of exercises for PCOD or PCOS. You can also opt for Mind-body exercises, Strength training, and Interval training.
Complications of PCOS and PCOD
There can be simple to severe complications of PCOS and PCOD. Some of the Complications of PCOS include the following:-
- Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (severe liver inflammation)
- Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
- Gestational Diabetes
- Endometrial cancer
- Abnormal uterine bleeding
- Untreatable acne, displaying hormonal problems
- Chronic Liver inflammation
- Pregnancy-Induced High Blood Pressure
The Final Word
If you notice any symptoms of PCOS and PCOD, you must reach out to a well-known gynecologist for immediate treatment. There can be various ill effects of such diseases, so proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary. And, to avoid PCOD problems in the future, you must take all the essential precautionary measures suggested by the doctor.