Overview of Stroke: Types of Strokes, Causes, Symptoms and Risk Factors

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 Overview of Stroke: Types of Strokes, Causes, Symptoms and Risk Factors

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), stroke is considered to be the fifth-leading cause of death in the United States. Even in India, a huge number of deaths occur due to stroke. It is a fatal disease and it requires immediate medical attention. When stroke occurs, it is important to rush to the best neuro hospital in Hyderabad so that the ill-effects can be prevented to a vast extent.

What is Stroke?

A stroke is a medical condition which occurs when the blood supply to part of your brain is interrupted or reduced. Thereby, preventing brain tissue from getting oxygen and nutrients. In this condition, brain cells begin to die in minutes. A stroke is a medical emergency. Hence, in cases of stroke prompt treatment is crucial. It is crucial to note that the early action can reduce brain damage and other complications.

Stroke Symptoms

There are Various Symptoms of Stroke Such as:-

Difficulty while speaking and understanding what others are saying. The patient may possibly experience confusion problems. Another symptom could be paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg. As a result of stroke, you may suddenly have blurred or blackened vision in one or either eyes, or you may see double. Apart from these symptoms, you may experience severe headache, which may be accompanied by vomiting, dizziness or altered consciousness.
Stroke symptoms in women and Stroke symptoms in men are more or less same. There is no such difference between the symptoms.

What Causes a Stroke?

The major causes of stroke are a blocked artery or leaking or bursting of a blood vessel. Some of the patients may only have a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that doesn’t cause lasting symptoms.

Stroke Risk Factors

Medical conditions such as heart diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure, and smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and many more are the risk factors that can result in stroke.

Types of Strokes

Here mentioned are the common types of strokes:-

  • Ischemic Stroke
    This type of stroke happens when the brain’s blood vessels become narrowed or blocked. Thus, causing severely reduced blood flow (ischemia). Narrowing of the blood vessels is caused by fatty deposits that can be built up in the blood vessels. Also, by blood clots or other debris that travel through your bloodstream and lodge in the blood vessels in your brain. According to a research, COVID-19 infection may be a possible cause of ischemic stroke.
  • Hemorrhagic Stroke
    This stroke occurs when a blood vessel in your brain leaks or ruptures. It can result from many conditions that affect your blood vessels such as uncontrolled high blood pressure, overtreatment with blood thinners, and protein deposits in blood vessel walls that lead to weakness in the vessel wall.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack
    A transient ischemic attack is a temporary period of stroke symptoms and doesn’t cause permanent damage. It is caused by a temporary decrease in blood supply to part of your brain. Thus, this type of stroke occurs when a clot reduces or blocks blood flow to the parts of your nervous system.
  • Embolic Stroke
    It is usually caused by a blood clot that forms elsewhere in the embolus and travels through the bloodstream to the brain. Such strokes often result from heart disease or heart surgery. It can occur rapidly and without any warning signs.

Stroke Diagnosis

Some of the tests you may have to go undergo to confirm stroke are the following:-

  • Blood tests – A group of blood tests will be performed to check how fast your blood clots, and also to check whether your blood sugar is too high or low.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan – It can help to show bleeding in the brain. The medical professional may inject a dye into your bloodstream to view your blood vessels in your neck and brain in greater details.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    MRI
    – It can detect brain tissue damaged by an ischemic stroke and brain hemorrhages. To perform MRI, dye is injected into a blood vessel. This helps to view the arteries, veins and highlight blood flow.
  • Echocardiogram – It helps to find the source of clots in your heart that may have traveled from your heart to your brain, thus, causing stroke.

Stroke Treatment

A stroke is a medical emergency and the immediate treatment can save lives and reduce disability. The treatment for stroke will focus on restoring blood flow for an ischemic stroke. Also, it will help to control bleeding and reduce pressure on the brain.
If blood clot is the reason for stroke, the patient may be able to receive a clot-busting drug such as tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) . This will dissolve the clot and help restore blood flow to the damaged area of the brain. Surgery may also be performed to remove blood from around the brain and repair damaged blood vessels. For example, Endovascular therapy. It is a minimally invasive procedure used to improve blood flow in the brain’s arteries and veins.
There are various other methods for the treatment of strokes.

Stroke Prevention

The prevention strategies for stroke mainly include maintaining a healthy lifestyle:-
Controlling high blood pressure – Lowering your blood pressure can help prevent a stroke. Lifestyle changes and proper consumption of medications are often used to treat high blood pressure. You must also reduce the amount of cholesterol and saturated fat in your diet.
Exercising regularly – Exercise can help lower your blood pressure. Thus, increase your levels of good cholesterol, and improve the overall health of your blood vessels and heart.
There are various causes of stroke. One of them being postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. To know more about the causes of stroke and its treatment, you must reach out to a well-known neurologist.

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