What is Ovarian Cancer and Its Causes?

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 What is Ovarian Cancer and Its Causes?

According to a study, only about 20% of ovarian cancers are found at an early stage. If ovarian cancer is detected early, about 94% of patients do have chances to live longer than 5 years after diagnosis.

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer in the ovaries, the small organs in the female reproductive system that create eggs. It may often be undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At an early-stage ovarian cancer is confined to the ovary, and it is more likely to be treated successfully at one of the best gynecology hospitals in Hyderabad. However, at a later stage it can be difficult to treat.

What are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer?

This type of cancer can develop, become quite large and spread throughout the abdomen before it causes any symptoms, and this can make early detection difficult. Some of the symptoms of Ovarian Cancer include pain, uneasiness in your abdomen and pelvis, significant changes in your eating habits, loss of appetite, bloating and stomach pain. And, abnormal bleeding or vaginal discharge, also, changes in your bowels, such as diarrhea and constipation, etc.

Causes of Ovarian Cancer

Although the cause is not clear but generally speaking, cancer begins when a cell develops mutation in its DNA. The mutations are responsible for the growth and multiplication creating a mass (tumor) of abnormal cells. These abnormal cells continue to live when healthy cells would die. They can attack nearby tissues and break off from an initial tumor to spread to other parts of the body.

Factors that Can Enhance Your Risk of Ovarian Cancer

This type of cancer can occur in women at any age. However, it is quite common in women between 50 to 60 years. People with two or more close relatives with ovarian cancer also have an increased risk of the disease. Another risky factor could be Estrogen hormone replacement therapy. Furthermore, beginning menstruation at an early age or starting menopause at a later age, or both, may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

Types of Ovarian Cancer

  • Epithelial Tumors: Most types of ovarian cancers are epithelial tumors. It begins in the thin layer of tissue that covers the outside of the ovaries.
  • Stromal Tumors: Nearly 7 percent of ovarian tumors are stromal. It starts in the ovarian tissue that comprises hormone-producing cells. It is typically diagnosed at an earlier stage than any other type of ovarian tumors.
  • Germ Cell Tumors: It begins in the egg-producing cells and tends to occur mostly in younger women.

Does ovarian cancer spread fast?

Ovarian cancer can progress from one to another stage within a matter of months. Thus, it is far more aggressive than malignancies such as breast cancer. The chances of ovarian cancer might occur in 1 out of 70 women. And, Metastatic ovarian cancer is a higher stage malignancy. It spreads from the cells in the ovaries to distant areas of the body such as to the liver, the spleen, and the intestines. Also, to the brain, skin or lymph nodes outside of the abdomen.

How is Ovarian Cancer Usually Found?

To find out the occurrence of ovarian cancer, screening test can be used. The tests that are most often used to screen for ovarian cancer are transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and the CA-125 blood test. TVUS is a type of test that uses sound waves to diagnose the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. This is done by putting an ultrasound wand into the vagina to find a mass (tumor) in the ovary. While the CA-125 blood test measures the amount of a protein called CA-125 in the blood. It can be useful as a tumor marker to help guide treatment in women known to have ovarian cancer.

Laparoscopy can also be used to diagnose ovarian cancer. To perform this procedure, a healthcare professional will insert a thin tube with a camera attached through a small hole in the abdomen. This will help to see the ovaries and take a tissue sample for a biopsy.

Screening tests which are performed for cervical cancer, such as a Pap test or HPV test aren’t effective tests for ovarian cancer.

Factors that Reduce the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Include:-

reduce the risk of ovarian cancer

  • Childbearing Status: Women who have delivered a baby before the age of 30 are at a lesser risk of developing the disease. And, breastfeeding also minimizes the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Birth Control: Taking oral contraceptives also reduces the risk of ovarian cancer. The risk remains lower the longer the contraceptives are taken.
  • Gynecologic Surgery: A tubal ligation or hysterectomy also lowers the risk of developing ovarian cancer.

To know more about the ovarian cancer, you must book an appointment with a Gynecologist.