Mitral valves prolapse is a valvular disease of the heart that affects the valve between the two left heart chambers. This valve connects the heart’s two left chambers, the left atrium, and the left ventricle.
If you face any heart discomfort or signs of irregularities, have a quick visit to the best cardiologist in Hyderabad and get your queries cleared out.
With this condition, the valve bulges backward rather than clamping shut as the left ventricle contracts, leaking blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium, making the heart work harder. It is also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets.
The Blood leaks from the left ventricle to the left atrium, making the heart work harder. Although it is usually a benign illness, it can occasionally lead to sudden cardiac death, endocarditis, or a cerebrovascular accident.
The medical term for this condition is Mitral regurgitation. Shortness of breath, tiredness, and leg edema are common signs of severe mitral regurgitation. Repairing the broken valve may necessitate surgery.
In most developed countries, up to 5% of persons suffer from mitral valve prolapse. It is a chronic illness that typically has no impact on one’s lifestyle or life expectancy. However, if the prolapse produces severe regurgitation, some people may require medication or surgery.
The Cause of Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral Valve Prolapse has no definite cause, but it is thought to be linked to inheritance. Mitral Valve Prolapse can be classified into two types: primary and secondary.
Primary Mitral Valve Prolapse
Primary Mitral Valve Prolapse is defined as the thickening of one or both valve flaps. Other side effects include flap surface fibrosis (scarring), chordae tendineae weakening or lengthening, and fibrin deposits on the flaps.
Secondary Mitral Valve Prolapse
In Secondary Mitral Valve Prolapse, the valves are not thickened. Damage to valvular tissues, rheumatic heart disease, or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can cause secondary mitral valve prolapse.
The cause of MVP can be understood by basic working of heart. The mitral valve keeps blood flow in the correct direction, and it is one of the heart’s four valves. Flaps (leaflets) open and close on each valve during each heartbeat. Blood flow via the heart to the body can be diminished if a valve does not open or close properly.
In Mitral Valve Prolapse, the bulge could prevent the valve from shutting completely, resulting in blood seeping backward through the valve, and it is called Mitral valve regurgitation
The Symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse
Symptoms of mitral valve prolapse differ significantly from one person to the next. Many people with mitral valve prolapse are unaware of their condition. Others may experience modest symptoms that worsen with time.
It is commonly identified when a doctor listens to the heart with a stethoscope during a standard medical examination and detects a specific clicking sound, with or without a heart murmur.
The amount of flow back of blood through the valve causes the signs and symptoms of mitral valve prolapse. Symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are:
- Shortness of breath
- Leg swelling
- Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
Mitral valve prolapse syndrome is a condition that arises when these symptoms occur together. Experts are divided on whether mitral valve prolapse causes these symptoms. Because these signs and symptoms and mitral valve prolapse are so prevalent, they may occur together by chance.
Mitral valve prolapse symptoms may resemble those of other medical diseases or disorders. Always seek medical advice before making any decisions from the best cardiology hospital in Hyderabad.
Mitral valve prolapse can occur in anyone with no correlation to age. Men over 50 are more likely to experience severe mitral valve prolapse symptoms. The risks are greater in people with:
- Ebstein anomaly
- Marfan syndrome
- Muscular dystrophy
- Graves’ disease
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Diagnosis of Mitral Valve Prolapse
The doctor runs a physical exam and listens to your heart with a stethoscope to diagnose mitral valve prolapse. The doctor listens to your heart and hears a sound called a systolic click; they may suspect that your mitral valve has prolapsed.
The systolic click is an irregular heart sound induced by mitral valve failure. Some people can have a heart murmur (whooshing sound), an unnatural sound produced by turbulent blood flow in the heart’s mitral valve. They also look for signs of Mitral valve prolapse chest pain.
After Physical examination and complete medical history. Doctors will advise going through other diagnostic tests like:
The most helpful diagnostic test for Mitral Valve Prolapse is echocardiography. It is a noninvasive test that employs sound waves to assess the chambers and valves of the heart. As an ultrasound transducer passes over the heart, echo sound waves produce an image on the monitor.
Transesophageal echocardiography (TTE) may be used to get more detailed pictures of the mitral valve in some cases.
3. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
A test that captures the heart’s electrical activity identifies abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias or dysrhythmias) and can occasionally reveal cardiac muscle damage. An ECG can detect arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) caused by mitral valve dysfunction. The heart’s electrical activity is measured in this rapid and painless procedure.
4. Cardiac Catheterization
X-rays are obtained after a contrast agent is injected into an artery to find any narrowing, occlusions, or other abnormalities of specific arteries. In addition, the heart’s and valve’s function may be evaluated.
5. Exercise or Stress Tests.
Exercise testing can indicate how the heart reacts to physical activity and whether symptoms of mitral valve prolapse develop while exercising. These tests involve walking on a treadmill or cycling on a stationary cycle while the heart is monitored using an ECG. If you cannot exercise, drugs that imitate the effects of exercise on the heart may be prescribed.
6. Cardiac MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
This is a noninvasive procedure that generates detailed pictures of the heart. It can be used in conjunction with echo to better look at the heart valves and muscles or prepare for heart valve surgery.
How to Treat Mitral Valve Prolapse?
Most individuals with mitral valve prolapse have no symptoms. Thus, treatment is rarely required. Your health care physician may prescribe regular checks and mild MVP treatment to monitor your status if you have mitral valve regurgitation but no symptoms. If you do not have symptoms, medicines or surgery may be required if you have severe mitral valve regurgitation.
Some of the medications used for Mitral valve prolapse treatment are:
- Water pills (Diuretics)
- Heart rhythm drugs (Antiarrhythmics)
- Blood thinners (Anticoagulants)
Maintaining proper hydration (fluid volume in the blood vessels) with sufficient salt and fluid consumption is critical for experiencing dizziness or fainting symptoms. Stockings that provide support may be advantageous.
The Mitral valve prolapse does not require surgery. However, if you have symptoms, Mitral valve prolapse surgery may be recommended if mitral prolapse causes significant mitral valve regurgitation. Mitral valve repair or replacement surgery is used to treat a sick or damaged mitral valve. Repairing the mitral valve is preferable since it preserves the existing valve.
The Final Word
Mitral Valve Prolapse is usually harmless and does not affect one’s lifespan. Most people who have MVP never have any health issues due to it. According to health professionals, people with mitral valve prolapse should consult a doctor regularly. To ensure your heart health, you can visit the best cardiologist in Hyderabad Telangana. Most heart health problems can be resolved with healthy eating, exercise, and maintaining weight. Regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle are recommended.