A malfunction characterizes type 2 diabetes in how the body controls and utilizes sugar (glucose) as fuel. This long-term (chronic) disorder causes surplus sugar to circulate in the bloodstream. High blood sugar levels can eventually cause neurological, cardiovascular, and immunological problems.
Type 2 diabetes has no cure, although reducing weight, eating healthily, and exercising can help you manage the disease. Connect to the best diabetes hospital in Hyderabad to monitor your blood sugar regularly, and you may require diabetic medication or insulin therapy.
Type 2 diabetes was earlier indicated as adult-onset diabetes. However, type 1 and type 2 diabetes can begin in childhood or adulthood. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent in older adults, but an increase in the number of obese youngsters has led to a rise in type 2 diabetes in younger people.
What Is Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is a disorder in which your body cannot adequately utilize the energy from the diet. Your pancreas produces a hormone (insulin) to support your cells using glucose (sugar). However, your pancreas creates less insulin over time, and your cells develop insulin resistance. This produces an excess of sugar to accumulate in your blood. High blood sugar levels caused by Type 2 diabetes can cause significant health complications such as heart disease, stroke, and death.
Signs And Symptoms
Type 2 diabetes symptoms can appear gradually. You can have this diabetes for years without realizing it. The signs and symptoms may include:
- Feeling hungry or thirsty
- Frequent urination
- Unintentional weight loss
- Vision impairment
- Slow-healing wounds
- Infections that occur frequently
- Hand or foot numbness or tingling
- Darkened skin patches near the armpits and neck
Type 2 diabetes is caused mainly by two interconnected issues:
- Insulin resistance builds in muscle, fat, and liver cells. These cells do not take up sufficient sugar because they do not typically interact with insulin.
- The pancreas cannot produce an adequate amount of insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control.
It is unclear why type 2 diabetes causes but being overweight and inactive state are significant contributors.
High blood sugar levels affected by Type 2 diabetes can lead to the subsequent complications:
- Gastroparesis and other digestive issues
- Eye diseases such as Diabetes-related retinopathy
- Foot-related issues, such as leg and foot ulcers
- Oral health issues
- Hearing impairment
- Cardiovascular disease
- Kidney failure
- Liver issues, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disorder
- Neuropathy of the periphery (nerve damage)
- Skin problems
Infections in the urinary tract and the bladder
DKA (Diabetes-related ketoacidosis) is a rare complication of Type 2 diabetes. DKA is a potentially fatal condition in which your blood develops acidic. DKA is generally expected in those with Type 1 diabetes.
Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes
The following blood tests can help your doctor in diagnosing type 2 diabetes:
- A fasting plasma glucose test: This test is used to determine your blood glucose level. This exam is best performed in the workplace after an eight-hour fast ( no foods or drinks except mouthfuls of water).
- Glycosylated hemoglobin testing: A1c testing measures your average blood sugar levels over three months.
- Random plasma glucose test: This laboratory test can be performed anytime without fasting.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: It measures your blood sugar levels before and after consuming a sweet beverage. In addition, the test assesses your body’s ability to handle glucose.
Type 2 diabetes has no known cure. However, Let us have a look at how is type 2 diabetes controlled? You can deal this illness with a healthy lifestyle and, if necessary, take medications. Manage you are: in collaboration with your doctor.
- Blood sugar: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or a blood glucose meter can assist you in meeting your blood sugar target. Regular A1c tests, insulin therapy, oral drugs, or injectable non-insulin diabetic medications may also be recommended by your healthcare professional.
- Blood pressure: Avoid smoking, exercise regularly and eat a healthy food to lower your blood pressure. In addition, your doctor may recommend you take blood pressure medication such as beta-blockers or ACE inhibitors.
- Cholesterol: Eat a diet reduced in saturated fats, trans fats, salt, and sugar. Your doctor may recommend using statins, which are cholesterol-lowering drugs.
Medicine And Insulin
Some people with medicine, diet, and exercise manage diabetes. For example, your doctor may recommend you use oral diabetes remedies. These are pills or liquids that can be taken orally. Metformin, for example, is a type 2 diabetes medication that helps manage the volume of glucose your liver generates.
You can also take up insulin to help your body use sugar more efficiently. Insulin is accessible in the subsequent forms:
- Injectable insulin: It is a shot that you administer to yourself. Most people inject insulin into a fleshy region of their body, such as their stomach. Injectable insulin comes in the form of an insulin pen.
- Inhaled Insulin: It is breathed through the mouth. Unfortunately, it is only available in a fast-acting formulation.
- Insulin pumps: They constantly administer insulin, just like a functioning pancreas. Insulin is delivered into your body via a small cannula by pumps (thin, flexible tubes). Pumps are connected to a computerized gadget that permits you to adjust the dose and frequency of insulin.
The Mechanism of Insulin
Insulin is a hormone produced by a gland located behind and beneath the stomach (pancreas). Insulin controls how the body uses sugar in the following ways:
- The pancreas secretes insulin in reaction to the sugar in the bloodstream.
- Insulin travels in your bloodstream, allowing sugar into your cells.
- The amount of sugar in your blood reduces.
- The pancreas produces less insulin in response to this reduction.
Healthy lifestyle choices can help with type 2 diabetes cure, especially if you have biological relatives who have the disease. In addition, if you have prediabetes, lifestyle adjustments can help to stop the progression of diabetes.
A healthy way of life includes:
- Proper type 2 diet: Consuming nutritious foods. Choose foods that are low in fat and calories while high in fiber. Fruits, vegs and greens, and whole grains should be prioritized. Avoid added salt and added sugar.
- Physical activities: Aim for 150 minutes or more of moderate to intense exercises regularly, such as brisk walking, bicycling, jogging, or swimming.
- Weight loss: Losing a small amount of weight and maintaining it can postpone progress from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. If you have prediabetes, decreasing 7% to 10% of your body weight can lessen your chances of developing diabetes.
To lower the probability of type 2 diabetes in persons with prediabetes, metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza, and others), an oral diabetes drug, may be administered. This is typically issued for obese older persons who cannot decrease blood sugar levels through lifestyle changes.
Type 2 diabetes is when your body does not generate enough insulin and cannot use sugar properly. As a result, sugar, or glucose, accumulates in your blood. High blood sugar levels might cause significant health problems.
However, Type 2 diabetes is controllable. A nutritious diet and regular exercise can help you regulate your blood sugar. You can also require insulin or medications.
Connect to the best hospital in Hyderabad to regularly monitor your blood sugar; if you have Type 2 diabetes, keep in close contact with your doctor.