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Eosinophilia – Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

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 Eosinophilia – Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Eosinophils are a kind of WBCs that helps your immune system function. You have Eosinophilia when your body creates an abnormally large quantity of eosinophils. Various medical conditions and drugs can cause high eosinophil levels.

Eosinophils have two different roles in the immune system when present in the body. They are:

Regulating inflammation: Promoting inflammation helps isolate and control disease, but it can cause tissue damage or other problematic symptoms like asthma or allergies when it gets excessive.

Destroying foreign substances: Eosinophils can eat foreign particles in the body, which can aid in the battle against parasite infection.

Typically, with Eosinophils, an infectious, neoplastic, or allergic process is involved. Although excessive eosinophils can be found in other body fluids or tissues, “eosinophilia” usually refers to peripheral blood eosinophilia. A more common absolute eosinophil count of 500 eosinophils/microliter (cells/microL) of blood.

Types of Eosinophilia

Eosinophilia is classified into two types of Eosinophilic Disorders based on their properties:

Blood Eosinophilia

A blood test, usually in a complete blood count, can determine elevated amounts of eosinophils in the blood. In adults, Eosinophilia is classified as a count of 500 or more eosinophils per microliter of blood. Hypereosinophilia is defined as a count that exceeds 1500 for several months.

Tissue Eosinophilia

Excess eosinophils accumulate in tissues around the site of inflammation or infection. Eosinophils in your bloodstream is normal if you have tissue eosinophilia. Certain fluids, like mucus from the nasal tissues, can be used to identify it.

What Causes Eosinophilia?

Your eosinophil count could be elevated for a variety of reasons. Some of the Eosinophilia causes are harmless and do not necessitate therapy. It is common for an increased count to be temporary and resolved independently. Here are a few causes of Eosinophilia.

Parasite Infections: A parasitic infection is the most common cause of Eosinophilia worldwide. Schistosomiasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, and ascariasis are some of these illnesses. These parasitic parasites can be found worldwide. Although a lack of recent travel does not rule out parasitic infections, it is an essential aspect of the eosinophilia work-up.

Drug Reactions: Eosinophilia can be triggered by medications, even if there are no evident signs or symptoms. Antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporins), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen), phenytoin (anti-seizure), and allopurinol are the most prevalent pharmaceuticals linked to Eosinophilia. Fortunately, most people will not have these side effects when using these medications. The most severe form is drug response with Eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

Atopy: Atopy is an immune response that happens in the body. Asthma, seasonal allergies (also known as allergic rhinitis), and eczema are all examples of atopy. Because these medical disorders are linked, it is uncommon for someone to have more than one of them. These are the most prevalent causes of mild to moderate Eosinophilia in children. Food allergies can also induce an increase in eosinophil levels.
Eosinophilia Esophagitis (EoE): This is a condition in which eosinophils spread to the esophagus, which ordinarily does not contain them. EoE causes high eosinophil counts in the blood in about half of the people who have it.

Cancers: Several malignancies, notably blood cancers, have increased eosinophil counts. These include eosinophilic leukemia, a rare acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Other causes include myeloproliferative neoplasms (essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera), B-cell and T-cell lymphoma, and gastrointestinal, lung, and cervix adenocarcinomas.

Eosinophilia Symptoms

Eosinophilia Symptoms

The symptoms of Eosinophilia are determined by the cause of the increased eosinophil level. If your eosinophil count is slightly elevated, you may not notice any symptoms.

The common signs and symptoms of Eosinophilia:
• Itching
• Asthma
• Rash
• Diarrhea in case of parasite infection
• Runny nose for those with allergic problems

How to Diagnose Eosinophilia?

Like most blood disorders, Eosinophilia is detected by a complete blood count (CBC). Eosinophils are a type of WBCs found in the differential portion of the CBC. The differential shows how many neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils are present in the blood with the help of the Eosinophilia blood test.
Following the diagnosis of Eosinophilia, your healthcare provider will seek to determine the reason, which may necessitate a referral to a hematologist. The number of eosinophils in the body can classify Eosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count).

Eosinophilia Normal Range:
Mild: 500 – 1500 cells/mL
Moderate: 1500 – 5000 cells/mL
Severe: > 5000 cells/mL

Your symptoms will be used to determine the cause of your Eosinophilia. Eosinophilic esophagitis can cause difficulties swallowing, chest and stomach pain, and vomiting. A biopsy of the esophagus is required for diagnosis. Many parasite infections are identified by collecting and analyzing stool samples. There may not be a test to detect if a medicine causes your Eosinophilia. It’s commonly assumed that the treatment was the cause if your eosinophil count returns to normal after you stop taking it.

How to Treat Eosinophilia?

Eosinophilia treatment focuses on the underlying source of the problem, whether an allergic reaction or medical or parasitic reaction. Oral corticosteroid medications, which are steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, are one type of Eosinophilia medicine. These treatments are both practical and safe.
If a medicine causes Eosinophilia, your doctor will usually advise you to stop using it or avoid it. If you have high eosinophil levels due to allergies or chronic sinusitis, your doctor may suggest allergy testing to verify what is causing the allergic reaction that caused Eosinophilia. If there is an infection, it will be treated by your healthcare professional. Your healthcare professional will treat you if you have blood cancer.

How to Prevent Eosinophilia?

Allergies most commonly cause high eosinophil levels. However, Eosinophilia might sometimes signify a serious underlying illness that you can’t avoid. Treatment to reduce your body’s allergic reactions can help you avoid allergy-related Eosinophilia. Specific preventative actions, such as – can assist in reducing the occurrence of Eosinophilia.

• Keeping up with one’s hygiene.
• Avoid raw meat, fish, freshwater prawns, snails, and slugs, among other things.
• To avoid parasites, carefully wash fruits and vegetables.
• Avoiding drugs to which you are allergic.
• Living in a clean and dust-free atmosphere.

Avoiding allergens that are known to cause Eosinophilia is an excellent overall precaution and permanent cure for Eosinophilia.

The Final Word

Eosinophils are a class of white blood cell that helps your immune system function. Eosinophilia occurs when your body creates an excessive number of eosinophils. When patients get routine blood testing, they frequently discover they have Eosinophilia. A high eosinophil count isn’t usually a reason for concern. Visit the best hospital in Hyderabad to start with your diagnosis, and your healthcare practitioner may order additional tests to determine why your eosinophil levels are high. Once the underlying cause of Eosinophilia has been identified, the doctor will treat the ailment that caused it. Several tests will most likely be performed on you to make a proper diagnosis. An expert may be required to complete the diagnosis and treatment in some circumstances. Make careful to discuss your present situation with your doctor and other additional issues that can create such a problem.

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