What Are Cataracts: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors and Treatments

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 What Are Cataracts: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors and Treatments

A cataract is defined as clouding of the eye’s natural lens. It lies behind the iris and the pupil and usually develops in both eyes. But, sometimes they only affect one. Most cataract symptoms occur as a result of getting older. This type of eye disorder is one of the most common causes of vision loss worldwide, but they are treatable. For the treatment of Cataract, you must visit the best eye specialist in Hyderabad.

What Causes Cataract

Due to ageing, the proteins that make up the eye’s natural lens can clump together. These clumps are the cataracts and cause the cloudiness. They may grow larger and cloud more of the lens. Thus, making it harder to see.

The lens inside the eye works much like a camera lens and also adjusts the eye’s focus. Therefore, letting us see things both up close and far away. We do not know why the eye’s lens changes as we age. However, researchers worldwide have identified factors that may be related to cataract development.

There are several underlying causes of cataracts. These include:

• An overproduction of oxidants
• Smoking
• Ultraviolet radiation
• The long-term use of steroids and other medications
• Diabetes and trauma
• Radiation Therapy
• Older eye surgery
• Hormone replacement therapy

Cataract Symptoms

A cataract starts out small. In the beginning it has little effect on your vision. The symptoms can take months to years to become noticeable. Gradually you may notice that your vision is blurred. Cataracts can progress at a different rate in each eye. It results in visual symptoms in one eye and normal vision in the other. You may also notice the following symptoms with cataracts:-

• Light from the sun seems too bright
• Eyes feel more sensitive to light
• Visual halos around bright lights
• Double vision and seeing at night or in low light is more difficult
• Colors may not appear as bright as they once did
• Blurry, cloudy, hazy or dim vision

According to the doctors, the type of cataract you have will affect exactly which symptoms you experience and how soon they will occur. If you notice the symptoms of cataract, you must see an eye doctor of the best eye hospital in Hyderabad.

Types of Cataract

There are many cataract types

Nuclear cataracts – It is the most common form of cataract and it forms in the center of the eye’s lens. It gradually worsens and affects vision.
Cortical cataracts – These are spoke-like opacities that begin near the edge of the lens. And, grow towards its center. This makes you experience more light glare. Thus, making night driving particularly difficult.
Congenital cataracts – These cataracts are present at birth in one or both eyes. They may be very small, with little effect on vision, or more severe.
Trauma-induced cataracts – It can form anywhere on the lens and often develop into a flower-petal.
Posterior subcapsular cataracts – It develops at the central back surface of the lens. These types of cataracts tend to develop faster than the others. This type of cataract affects your vision around bright light and colors.

Risk Factors of Cataract

Risk Factors of Cataract

There is a list of risk factors associated with cataracts such as:

• Older age
• Previous eye injury
• Diabetes
• Heavy alcohol use
• Obesity
• High blood pressure
• Too much sun exposure
• Exposure to radiation from X-rays and cancer treatments
• A family history

How is a Cataract Diagnosed

A number of tests can be performed by the eye doctors to diagnose cataracts

Slit-lamp exam: A slit lamp is a large, binocular microscope with a bright light source. It is mounted on a small table, and enables your eye doctor to closely examine your eye under high magnification.
Retinal exam: To begin with, an eye doctor will dilate your eyes with eye drops. Thus, causing the pupils to slowly open. It offers a much better view inside your eye. The medical professional then examines the retina and optic nerve in the back of your eye. This test also provides the best view of any cataract formation on the lens.
Refraction: Your eye doctor determines the degree of your refractive errors and the eyeglass prescription that provides your best possible visual acuity. If the prescription of your glasses has changed and your vision can no longer be corrected to 20/20, you may have a cataract developing.

All the cases of cataract do not require treatment after they’re diagnosed, particularly if they aren’t bothering you. In the initial level, a simple change of your eyeglass prescription may restore acceptable vision.

Cataracts Treatment

 

Cataract Treatment

When cataract symptoms begin to appear, you may be able to improve your vision for a while using New glasses, Strong bifocals, Magnification glasses and other appropriate lighting or other visual aids. Other treatment options for cataracts that have progressed may include cataract surgery.
If cataracts start to affect your quality of life, then your eye doctor may suggest cataract surgery. This is generally seen as a low-risk. It is an effective way to restore your vision. Cataract surgery is a simple, relatively painless procedure to regain vision.

Cataract Surgery

Cataracts Treatment

Cataract surgery is recommended when cataracts prevent you from going about your daily activities, such as reading or driving. It’s also performed when cataracts interfere with the treatment of other eye problems.
Phacoemulsification surgical method involves the use of ultrasound waves to break the lens apart and remove the pieces. And, Extracapsular surgery involves removal of the cloudy part of the lens through a long incision in the cornea. After surgery is performed, the right intraocular lens is placed where the natural lens was.
The surgical process to remove a cataract is generally very safe and has a high success rate. Some of the risks of cataract surgery include infection, bleeding, and retinal detachment. Although the incidences of all those complications are less than 1%. Most people can go home the same day as their surgery.

Tips to Prevent Cataract

At present, there is no known way to stop cataracts from developing. However, if you can limit some of the risk factors listed above, it may help slow the rate of progression of cataract.

Some of the tips to limit the occurrence of cataract:

• You must wear sunglasses during the day to reduce your eyes’ exposure to the sun’s UV radiation
• You must quit smoking
• You should eat a healthy diet
• You should maintain an exercise regimen
• You must avoid diabetes or hypertension
• You should go for frequent eye exams to ensure any developing cataracts get diagnosed early

There is no treatment to completely prevent or slow the progression of cataracts. Changes in vision caused by age-related cataracts can be very gradual. Some patients may fail to notice the visual changes at first. However, as cataracts progress, you may observe that the vision symptoms worsen.

Cataract Requires Early Diagnosis and Suitable Effective Treatment

In the beginning, the cloudiness in your eyesight triggered by a cataract may impair only a tiny fraction of the eye’s lens, and you’d be unaware of any vision loss. As the cataract grows in size, it clouds more of your lens and distorts the light that passes through it. This could result in more noticeable symptoms. You should not self-diagnose your eye condition. It is crucial to seek help from a licensed and experienced ophthalmologist.

To learn more about the occurrence of cataract and its treatment, you must reach out to an eye specialist of a well-known hospital.

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