Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is concerned with neurosurgical conditions, their diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. These conditions generally affect the nervous system including the brain, extra-cranial cerebrovascular system, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and intracranial hemorrhage.
Specializations within neurosurgery that cater to unfavourable conditions require additional higher fellowship training of one to two years. Some of these divisions of neurosurgery are:
- Stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, and epilepsy surgery.
- Skull base surgery.
- Spinal neurosurgery.
- Vascular neurosurgery and endovascular neurosurgery.
- Neuropsychiatric surgery (neurosurgery for the treatment of adult or pediatric mental illnesses).
- Oncological neurosurgery (also called neurosurgical oncology; includes pediatric oncological neurosurgery).
- Peripheral nerve surgery.
- Pediatric neurosurgery (for cancer, seizures, bleeding, stroke, cognitive disorders or congenital neurological disorders).
- Geriatric neurosurgery (for the treatment of neurological disorders and dementias and mental impairments based on aging like Parkinson's disorder, Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, concussion, or neurovascular cause- namely seizure, tumor, and similar disorders).